07 February 2018

Clauses of contrast, purpose and reason


Grammar points » B1 

Clauses of contrast


although, even though

We can use although/even though at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence followed by a clause (subject + verb). We NEVER use a comma after although or event though.
  • Although/Even though we had a bad game, we won. 
  • We won, although/even though we had a bad game.

however

We use however to connect two different sentences. We normally use however after a full stop (.) or a semi-colon (;). However should ALWAYS be followed by a comma.
  • We didn’t like the hotel. However, we had a fantastic time. 
  • We went to the beach; however, the weather wasn’t perfect. 

despite / in spite of

Despite and in spite of are normally followed by a noun or a –ing verb. They can go at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence.
  • Despite/In spite of the rain, we went to the concert.
  • They arrived despite/in spite of leaving very early. 
We can use a clause (subject + verb) after despite/in spite of the fact that.
  • We went out despite/In spite of the fact that it was raining. 

Clauses of purpose


to + infinitive

The most common way to express purpose in English is to + infinitive.
  • The student worked hard to pass the test. 

in order to/so as to + infinitive

In order to or so as to + infinitive are more common in formal English, mainly in writing. The negative forms are in order not to and so as not to + infinitive.
  • We were asked to stay in order to finish the project. 
  • He left home early in order not to be late.
  • Use a plastic hammer so as to avoid damage. 
  • They walked quietly so as not to wake up the children. 

so that + clause

We can also use so that + subject + verb to express purpose. We normally use a modal verb with this connector. (couldcanwould, etc.)
  • We left early so that we could park near the centre. 
  • He made some flashcards so that it would be easier for his mum to remember the instructions. 

for + noun

We can also use for + noun to express purpose.
  • We went to the bar for a drink.
  • Would you like to go the the park for a run?

Clauses of reason


When we want to explain the reason why something happened or why someone did something, we use a clause of reason introduced by a conjunction (assincebecause) or a noun phrase introduced by because ofdue toowing to, or on account of.

because

We use because before a clause (subject + verb). It can be used at the beginning or at the end of a sentence (at the end is more common). A comma is used when the clause of reason is at the beginning of the sentence.
  • We didn’t go because it was raining heavily. 
  • Because the event was cancelled, they lost their deposits. 

as/since

We use as and since in a very similar way to because. They are followed by subject + verb and can be used at the beginning or at the end of a sentence. However, as and since are more formal expressions, and more common in written than in spoken English.
  • The government urged people to stay indoors since/as more rain is forecast for the entire weekend.
  • As/Since the roads were blocked, the victims had to be rescued by helicopter. 

because of

We use because of before a noun.
  • The concert was postponed because of the heavy rain. 

due to

Due to means ‘because of’ although it is more formal. We also use due to before a noun.
  • The event was cancelled due to lack of interest. 
  • I couldn’t enjoy the meal due to their constant arguing. 

Click here to do some exercises and see the whole explanation with charts.


01 February 2018

Simple Present Stories

Click on the link below to read a story in the Simple Present. Then you can do the exercises.

Simple Present Story 1

Simple Present story 2


Simple Present story 3 


Simple Present story 4

30 January 2018

Their job



My mother is a teacher. She works at a primary school in Aviles. She doesn’t speak English at work. She loves her job because she likes children and wants to teach them interesting things.






My uncle is an actor. He works for a theatre company in London. He always speaks English at work. He loves his job because he likes to make people happy and also because he has a good salary and loves to be famous.

21 January 2018

Writing Emails in English

Electronic mail, most commonly abbreviated email or e-mail, is a method of exchanging digital messages.
An electronic mail message consists of two components, the message header, and the message body, which is the email's content. The message header contains control information, including, minimally, an originator's email adrress and one or more recipient addresses. Usually additional information is added, such as a subject header field.
Emails are a fast way to communicate for business and pleasure. In this post you'll find useful hints and tips to write better emails in English.


Parts of Email
Here are the fields of the Email defined with example texts
Example Subjects
The Subject is more important than the email itself, it should be focused, clear and informative.


Strong Subjects:
  • Invitation to the ABC Conference, Nov 2009
  • Application for Account Manager Position #413 – Jane Smith CV
  • Agenda for the meeting on Monday, 10am
  • Party Invitation for John, Sally and Martin
  • Updates on the building plans
  • Meeting scheduled for Oct 15, Thursday @ 10am
  • Great craft ideas using recyclable materials
Weak Subjects:
  • [blank]
  • Hi, Hello, How are you?
  • First line of the email message
  • Words to avoid: Help, Percent Off, Reminder, Free


Example Greetings:
  • Dear [name],
  • Hi [name],
  • Hi,
  • Hello [name],
  • Hello,
  • To whom it may concern,
Example Opening Sentences
  • Following our phone conversation, I am sending you…
  • Attached please find the documents you requested regarding…
  • In regards to the upcoming pilot program, I have listed below the tasks and deadlines that need to be completed.
  • Further to our last discussion, I would like to bring to your attention the following issues:
  • As we agreed, there will not be …
  • Please reconsider our proposal for …
  • In response to your job post for Marketing Director, please find below a brief overview of my skills. I have also attached my CV for your review.
Example Email Information in Detail: details, information and actions required.
  • Here is the detailed list:
  • In addition to the attached agenda, please click on this link http://www...
  • To register for the online event, please go to...
Example Closing Sentences
  • I look forward to your reply.
  • Thank you for the time you have taken to review my candidacy for the position.
  • Please don’t hesitate to contact me with any questions or concerns you may have.
  • Thank you, in advance, for your time.
  • I await receipt of the information we discussed.
  • Please forward me the exact information.
Example Sign-offs before the Signature: identify yourself, company and contact information.
  • Sincerely,
  • Thank you,
  • Best Regards,
  • Thanks,
Signature
Name
Title, company name
Email
Phone/Fax
Web Address
Click here for more example emails.
  • Job Interview Thank you
  • Job Cover Letter
  • Request For Update on a Pilot
Email Features

There are many features that are included in emails; here I will highlight just a few important ones.
Spelling: Always proofread before sending: spelling, punctuation and grammar. [F7]
Insert: Since emails are filtered here are a few tips regarding attachments and links:
  • Keep file sizes small.
  • ZIP or PDF attachments (exe, jpg, xls, doc are sometimes considered spam).
  • When replying, do not resend attachments again.
  • Use links whenever possible to files that are stored online or in shared folders.
Options: If the email is very important, under options request a read receipt, this way you can ensure the email has arrived at its destination.
Reply to All: Stop and think before hitting reply to all sometimes you may just need to hit reply.

The information in this post has been taken from Wikipedia and Learn English on line

17 January 2018

Basic formal letters

Click on the link below to learn how to write formal letters in English



Click here to see an example of different types of letters with useful expressions (Hacer clic en los enlaces abajo para ver ejemplos de distintas cartas formales con vocubulario y frases útiles)

Letter Writing Exercises




Letter writing is one of the tasks you may be asked to do for your Certification Terminal Test in June. So, the more you practise, the better.
To start with,you can have a look at several model letters and then do these exercises.

16 January 2018

Verb Tenses





You can find grammar and exercises to practise with the Present Simple on OM Multimedia. Click here.

What do you have for breakfast? Where do you have it?

Marco, Rio, Brazil

For breakfast I have fruit, usually papaya or mango.












Then I have bread with butter and jam, and a cup of coffee.






I usually have breakfast at home, but at the weekend I have it in a bar near my house. I think my breakfast is very healthy.

05 December 2017

A Tender Story



 
Blogger Templates